## Wondrous Water

With the summer months upon us, it is time to think of swimming pools, sprinklers and beaches. Let's celebrate by doing science experiments with water.

Water truly is a wondrous substance. You could spend months, even years, studying water and its special properties. Although it is easy to take it for granted because it flows out of the tap, water is important to life and precious, too.

Physics Experiments
1. Friction
All you'll need for the first experiment is a surface that can get wet, such as floor, patio or counter top, and a few wooden blocks or flat bottomed toys. Slide the blocks over the dry surface first. Ask your children to think about how it feels. Is it hard or easy? What happens when you push the blocks quickly back and forth? Do they get warmer on the bottom?

Once the children have gotten a feel for blocks on a dry surface, pour on some water. Is it easier or harder to push the blocks around? Do the bottoms of the blocks get warmer or do they stay cool?

If your children seem interested still, you can ramp it up a bit (sorry, pun intended) by building what is called an inclined plane and allowing the blocks to slide down. A child’s slide would work great for this. You can even race blocks on a dry surface versus blocks on a wet surface. Have fun!

2. Floating and sinking
A classic water experiment is to examine what floats and what sinks. Fill the bathtub, a bucket, kiddie pool, or plastic bin with a few inches of water. Provide your children with age-appropriate objects to test, such as wooden blocks, coins, lumps of clay, and strips of aluminum foil. Believe it or not, what seems mundane to adults may fascinate a child, so be open to revisit this experiment and to test many different objects. Ask them to predict what will happen before the object goes into the water. Older children may be ready to learn about terms such as density and buoyancy.

Note: For safety, always empty the water out of the container after play and always watch children around water.

Chemistry

States of Matter
Water exhibits all three states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) at relatively normal temperatures and thus is ideal for studying these properties.

Solid:
Put some water in different-shaped containers (margarine bowls, food molds) and freeze it. Allow the children to help pick containers and fill them. For added enjoyment, add a few drops of food coloring to the water. Or you can add bits of edible flowers such as roses, or leaves of herbs as decorations

On a warm day, take the ice outside and use it to build ice sculptures. Remove the ice from the containers by briefly immersing in water if it won't just slip out. If you don't have time to make special shapes, simple ice cubes can work great for this, too. I have been told you can use salt to melt two pieces together, but I've never had much success with doing that. Pile the ice into buildings, animals or abstract forms. You can lightly mist the finished products with water containing food coloring. Then watch the sculptures melt. Predict how long it will take.

Older children can design inventions to protect the ice from melting, and then build and test their invention by seeing how long it takes for the ice to melt inside the device versus unprotected.
Enjoy the cool.

Liquid
You can perform many fun experiments with liquid water, such as seeing how many drops of water will fit on a penny. Dissolve salts or sugar into water. See how oil and water don't mix. You can study the movement of water in a straw, the possibilities are endless. Try this page for detailed instructions about testing oil and water.

Gas
To study water in the gas form, you will need water, paint brushes and a sidewalk or driveway on a hot day. If you must stay indoors, a chalkboard will work too. Simply paint the water onto a flat surface and then time how long it takes to evaporate. Explain that the liquid water is turning into a gas as it disappears and is rising up into the air.

To show the gas water turning back into liquid, set out a glass full of ice water on a warm day. The gas should condense into liquid around the outside of the glass after a few minutes.

Biology
Water is essential for life on our planet. We all know we must water plants for them to grow. But what are plants doing with that water?

To test this question, on a warm sunny day, slip a plastic bag around the end of a leafy branch of a tree and tie it tightly to the branch, effectively bagging the end to the tree branch. Visit the tree in fifteen minutes and then again in a half hour. What is happening inside the bag?

You should see the bag start to fill with condensing water. Trees release a lot of water on a hot day through a process known as transpiration. You are capturing the water that is being released.

You may also want to visit a pond, lake or ocean and observe all the living creatures that use water for a home. And hopefully you can do some wading or swimming to test the water yourself.

## Critter Crawl

For recent weekend science fun posts we have had a couple of walks: a spring flower walk and a flowering tree walk. Now it is time for a change of pace and do a critter crawl.

Have you ever dug through a pile of leaf litter or looked under a log? How about sifted through a compost heap? Take some time to find a quiet, preferably moist, spot where pieces of dead plants are piled and spend a while getting to know the small, but important animals that live there. Prepare to be amazed at how many different tiny creatures dwell in this often-ignored part of our world.

Before you get started, you might want to gather up a few items:

• Tweezers, forceps or a small stick to gently move leaves or bark
• Small paintbrush to remove dirt and move tiny creatures
• Paper and pencil to make drawings and record results
• Identification guides, or take a look at descriptions of compost critters like this one at the Junior Master Gardener website

Locate a compost heap, pile of leaves or logs where you have permission to explore. First survey the area. Make sure you and your family are familiar with common poisonous creatures such as snakes or scorpions that might also be found hiding under leaves, rocks or logs in your community. Bees and wasps sometimes nest in the ground too, so exercise caution.

Gently begin to turn over leaves or peel off loose bark. Pay close attention. What kinds of things might you see?

Expect:

• Insects such as beetles, crickets, cockroaches, ants or earwigs
• Snails, slugs
• Spiders, mites
• Millipedes, centipedes
• Worms

If you are lucky you might find a few creatures that are children's favorites, the rolypolies or sowbugs (also called potato bugs, wood lice and various other names). Depending on the type, rolypolies and sowbugs are 1/4- to 1/2-inch-long, gray and relatively hard shelled.

If you find some, gently pick one up. How does it react to being picked up? Does it roll into a tight ball? If so, then it is a rolypoly.

Does it simply try to scamper away? Then it is likely to be a sowbug. Sowbugs look similar to rolypolies, but lack the ability to curl up tightly.

The rolypolies and sowbugs belong to a group of animals called the Isopoda. "Iso" means same, and "poda" means foot. Carefully tip yours over and see if this name fits. Does all its feet look the same? How many legs does it have? Insects have six legs and spiders have eight legs, do you think it is either of those?

Does the isopod have eyes? Does it have antennae? What are those small spikes sticking out from the rear part?

When scientists carefully examined isopods, and then compared the isopod appendages and other characteristics to those of other groups of animals, they figured out that isopods are closely related to crabs, shrimp and lobsters. They are crustaceans. Tiny crustaceans in your garden or compost heap, isn't that cool?

What happens when you set your isopod back down? Does it run towards the light or away from the light? Does it try to hide or does it curl up? Try thinking up some more questions to ask.

Keep looking through the litter. You will probably encounter a few things less familiar than the rolypolies, but no less interesting. Have a lot of fun while you observe and learn about this hidden world.

If you can't get outside this weekend, then pick up a few books, like the ones suggested below. After reading them, crawl around the house pretending to be earthworms, crickets and isopods.

Rolypolyology (Backyard Buddies)
by Michael Elsohn Ross, Published by Carolrhoda Books, Inc. Minneapolis, 1995. ISBN 0876149018 contains detailed information and ideas for experiment with isopods.

Compost Critters
by Bianca Lavies, Published by Dutton, 1993. ISBN 0525447636 has absolutely stunning photographs of the inhabitants of a compost heap. Amazing!

## A Fungus Among Us

The cool, wet weather we have been having has brought out some mushrooms. Quick, are mushrooms plants or animals? If you say neither, then you know your stuff. Mushrooms were once thought to be plants, but mushrooms don't make their own food. Modern investigations have shown them to be more closely related to animals. For instance, mushrooms have the protein chitin, which is also found in insects. But mushrooms aren't exactly animals either. For example, as far as we know they don't run around like animals do. In fact mushrooms are so distinct, they are now given their own Kingdom, the Fungi.

What are fungi? Most people recognize that mushrooms are fungi. In addition, yeasts and truffles, molds, mildew and also disease-causing parasites of insects are fungi. Lichens, which grow on rocks in a variety of climates, are a mix of fungi and algae growing together.

Fungi range in size from microscopic to quite possibly the largest organism on earth. Scientists are making the case that a giant fungus found growing in the Malheur National Forest in Oregon could be the world's largest individual organism, because it covers some 2200 acres. Information is still being gathered, and because much of the fungus is hidden from view, it also could be made up of clusters of individuals.

The mushroom part of the fungus we see is the reproductive part, or using older analogies, the fruit of the fungus. The body of the fungus is made up of threads called mycelium, and they are often hard to see because they grow underground or in rotting wood. If you have ever broken open a rotting log and seen white hair-like strands, you have seen mycelium.

If the mushrooms are like fruit, then where are the seeds? It turns out that fungi grow from tiny particles called spores. If you have ever found a mature puffball and stepped on it, the smoky clouds that come out are the spores being released into the air. Here is a picture of a puffball, if you have never seen one. The spores produce new strands called hyphae and then mycelia to make new fungi.

Activities:

Fungi as Food
(Safety Note: Many wild mushrooms are poisonous. Beginners should stick to the grocery store varieties).
Explore edible mushrooms by visiting grocery stores to see all the different kinds that are available. We found shiitake, oysters, white, brown and portabellas. Discuss how they are similar and different. You might want to buy a few, and try the different flavors in your favorite recipes. You could also pick up some yeast and make bread with it. Show the yeast to your children and let them smell it. By the way, there is nothing better than white mushrooms sautéed in butter made into a sandwich between two slices of freshly made bread.

Make Spore Prints
If you don't want to eat the mushrooms, use a few different kinds of mushrooms from the grocery store to make spore prints. Try to find older mushrooms already producing the brown powdery spores. Young mushrooms with pink gills or button mushrooms aren't ready to make spores yet.

Place the mushroom with the frilly gill side against some white paper and then cover it with a glass or bowl. (You'll have to remove the stem first). Leave for a few hours or overnight. If the mushroom is producing spores, it should leave a print when you gently lift it away.

Scientists who study fungi, called mycologists, use spore prints to help figure out what species they have found.

Websites:

Check out an experiment that uses yeast to blow up a balloon.

Older children can visit here to learn more about fungi, starting with the attack of the killer fungus.

Finally, if you have the time, growing mushrooms from a kit can be a great experience for kids. Kits are available with different types of mushrooms, at varying sizes and costs. Check the Internet for sources.

A Few Mushroom and Fungi Books:

Mushroom in the Rain by Mirra Ginsburg. Macmillan Publishing Co, New York. 1974.
A fiction picture book with a cute story.

What Rot! Nature's Mighty Recycler by Elizabeth Ring. Millbrook Press, Brookfield Conn. 1996. (Nonfiction)

Fungi by Mary Kay Larson, Newbridge Educational Publishing, New York. 2003. (Nonfiction)

Plants That Never Bloom by Ruth Heller. (nonfiction). Note: This older book still classifies fungi as plants, but the other information and illustrations are still worthwhile.

What is a Fungus? By D.M. Souza. Franklin Watts, New York. 2002. (Nonfiction)

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