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Carrying along the theme of insects that have changed the course of human history, let’s look at another species with humble beginnings and a big role. Here is a celebrity that can be found in the fallen, rotting grapefruit in my backyard.

fruit fly

This photograph is of a male fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Notice the bright red eyes. I can tell the one in the middle is a male because the end of the abdomen is dark. You might recognize these little flies if you have ever taken a genetics class or left a banana out on the counter too long.

fruit fly

These are female fruit flies. Their abdomen lack the black block at the end.

Also called vinegar flies or pomace flies, these tiny creatures don’t actually feed on fruit, but their larvae feed on the fungi associated with decay. A sound, healthy fruit is of no interest to a fruit fly.

As for their benefit to humans, fruit flies have been the staples of biology labs for over a century. Much of what we know about genetics and developmental biology came from studies of fruit flies.

Drosophila melanogaster was not native to North America, but is now almost a domesticated species. It is found wherever people are found. In the western United States we have a few native species, including another fruit fly used in biology labs called Drosophilia pseudoobscura.

If you are interested in learning more about fruit flies, try the quirky adult nonfiction
book Fly: The Unsung Hero of Twentieth Century Science by Martin Brookes (Be aware that this book contains what would be considered adult themes.)

For kids, you might try a cute fiction picture book about flies, called
Diary of a Fly by Doreen Cronin, Harry Bliss (Illustrator). My son got to meet the author and illustrator of this book at a local indie bookstore, and they were a wonderful team. The illustrator had a big impact on my son, who loves to draw.

While preparing for Thanksgiving, I realized the turkey baster was missing from the kitchen. I knew exactly where it was, however. It was in the bin where I keep all my insect teaching demonstrations. It turns out that a turkey baster is a great tool to show how certain types of insect mouthparts work. That gave me an idea for some weekend science fun that is quick, easy and educational.

Remember the discussion in the cochineal scale post about whether they were scales or beetles, and how different insects possess different types of mouthparts? Studying insect mouthparts can help not only with identification, but also to further understand the insect’s biology.

Gather:

  • Enlarged photographs of insect heads showing mouthparts (nature calendars work well) or large plastic insect models
  • Pliers, gardening shears or scissors (as an example of chewing mouthparts)
  • Turkey baster (as an example of sucking mouthparts)
  • Boxed drink with straws still in the wrapper (as an example of piercing/sucking mouthparts)
  • Party favor and drinking straw (as an example of siphoning mouthparts)
  • Sponge (as an example of sponging mouthparts)
  • Few tablespoons of baking powder
  • Small container of water
  • Plant leaves (optional)

Chewing Mouthparts - Mandibles
Common insects such as beetles, grasshoppers and caterpillars have mouthparts that are like pruning shears. The jaws, called mandibles, are cutting blades that move from side to side. You can show this by cutting a hole in a plant leaf with pruning shears or scissors.

model insectmodel insect

Dr. George Butler made this model of a grasshopper head for me about 15 years ago. The insect's upper 'lip' (that covers the mandibles) is hinged, so it can be pulled up to show the white mandibles underneath. Under the mandibles are the maxillae, which have finger-like projections called palps. The palps taste and move around the food. The lower 'lip' also has palps. It is called the labium. Who knew an insect mouth would be so complicated?

For younger children, a pair of plastic pliers can be a safe and easy example of how mandibles work.

model insect

There was a beetle in the picture too. This is what happened to it 🙂

cat eating beetle

Piercing/sucking Mouthparts - called a Proboscis
A large group of insects, such as mosquitoes, stink bugs and cicadas have mouthparts like tubes that pierce into their food source and suck up the juices.

insect

This is a model of a cicada head.

Some sucking mouthparts are like the turkey baster, but most sucking mouthparts are not simply tubes. They consist of a sheath or wrapper around a bundle of structures called stylets.

model insect

Insert two box drink straws into one wrapper, with the bottom open. Then punch the straws into the drink. You will see that the wrapper folds back the way a sheath would in an insect proboscis. The fluid would flow up not just within the straws, but between them as well.

model insect

Siphoning Mouthparts
Adult butterflies and moths have siphoning mouthparts that are simply a flexible tube that they slip into fluids, like nectar. When not in use the tube rolls up like a party favor.

model insect

model insectmodel insect

Sponging Mouthparts
Certain types of flies have mouthparts that are like bits of sponge. In a fun demonstration, sprinkle some baking powder on a plate or table surface. Explain that this represents some food like sugar that a fly might want to eat.

model insect

Ask the children to try to “eat’ it with a piece of dry sponge. It doesn’t work too well. Ask them how the fly might make it work better. Usually someone gets the idea to wet it. Pour a bit of water on the powder (I use baking powder because it fizzes a bit adding to the drama). Explain that a fly actually ‘spits’ on its food to wet it. Now the sponge can suck up the food easily.

model insect

Mixed Mouthparts – For example, the Honey Bees

Not all insects have just one type of mouthpart. For example, honey bees have two types, mandibles and a proboscis. The mandibles are used for any chores about the hive that require grasping or cutting, such as working wax to construct the comb, biting into flower parts (anthers) to release pollen, carrying detritus out of the hive, or gripping enemies during nest defense.

The proboscis of the honey bee is simply a long, slender, hairy tongue that acts as a straw to bring the liquid food (nectar, honey and water) to the mouth. The sheath in this case is called the stipes. When in use, the tongue moves rapidly back and forth while the flexible tip performs a lapping motion. After feeding, the proboscis is drawn up and folded behind the head.

honey bee head

The study of insect mouthparts isn't just for kids.  In depth discussion of insect mouthparts can be found at the  University of Kentucky Master Gardener Website

While you are at the University of Kentucky, they have a whole bunch of information about insects and activities for kids, starting at this link:
Kids Home University of Kentucky

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Just caught a brief chance to photograph this lady beetle before it flew away.

twicestabbed lady beetle

Most of us think of ladybugs or lady beetles as red with black spots, but these helpful beetles come in many colors, shapes and sizes. This one has the interesting name of Twicestabbed lady beetle, from the two spots of bright red on its wings (elytra), one on either side. The scientific name name is Chilocorus. Although it was only a brief glance, it is probably Chilocorus orbus, which feeds on scale insects.

Hope everyone has a nice Thanksgiving!