We are excited to let everyone know we will be participating in a blogging carnival this month about Environmental Education called Learning in the Great Outdoors.
According to the website, the carnival “is intended to be a monthly clearinghouse for online resources, discussions, tools, debate, or any other information related to using the environment as a context for learning.
If you are interested in nature and environmental education, take a look at the results from last month's May 2008 carnival hosted at the 10,000 Birds website. You might want to spend some time checking out the rest of this interesting site, too.
The June 2008 carnival will be held at The Miss Rumpius Effect blog, by a teacher educator who discusses poetry, children's literature and issues related to teaching children. Stop by her science resources for teachers, too.
We also want to thank Karen at Leaping From the Box for mentioning us in her blog. If you are interested in homeschooling, Karen's website, blog and chat are great resources.
Upon revisiting the same plants again and again while searching for the bug of the week, I've made an interesting discovery. Although we think of insects as being highly mobile, a few do settle down for a period of time and make a plant their home. For example, the tarantula hawk from last week is still around. It seems to be a male and it has staked out one of our milkweed plants as his very own. We've started calling him our "pet" tarantula hawk wasp.
Going back to where I found the assassin bug earlier, I was surprised to find this adult assassin bug. The adult looks very different from the bright orange nymph. It is green with dark red on its wings. Would you have recognized it? I wonder if it the same one...
The cool, wet weather we have been having has brought out some mushrooms. Quick, are mushrooms plants or animals? If you say neither, then you know your stuff. Mushrooms were once thought to be plants, but mushrooms don't make their own food. Modern investigations have shown them to be more closely related to animals. For instance, mushrooms have the protein chitin, which is also found in insects. But mushrooms aren't exactly animals either. For example, as far as we know they don't run around like animals do. In fact mushrooms are so distinct, they are now given their own Kingdom, the Fungi.
What are fungi? Most people recognize that mushrooms are fungi. In addition, yeasts and truffles, molds, mildew and also disease-causing parasites of insects are fungi. Lichens, which grow on rocks in a variety of climates, are a mix of fungi and algae growing together.
Fungi range in size from microscopic to quite possibly the largest organism on earth. Scientists are making the case that a giant fungus found growing in the Malheur National Forest in Oregon could be the world's largest individual organism, because it covers some 2200 acres. Information is still being gathered, and because much of the fungus is hidden from view, it also could be made up of clusters of individuals.
The mushroom part of the fungus we see is the reproductive part, or using older analogies, the fruit of the fungus. The body of the fungus is made up of threads called mycelium, and they are often hard to see because they grow underground or in rotting wood. If you have ever broken open a rotting log and seen white hair-like strands, you have seen mycelium.
If the mushrooms are like fruit, then where are the seeds? It turns out that fungi grow from tiny particles called spores. If you have ever found a mature puffball and stepped on it, the smoky clouds that come out are the spores being released into the air. Here is a picture of a puffball, if you have never seen one. The spores produce new strands called hyphae and then mycelia to make new fungi.
Fungi as Food
(Safety Note: Many wild mushrooms are poisonous. Beginners should stick to the grocery store varieties).
Explore edible mushrooms by visiting grocery stores to see all the different kinds that are available. We found shiitake, oysters, white, brown and portabellas. Discuss how they are similar and different. You might want to buy a few, and try the different flavors in your favorite recipes. You could also pick up some yeast and make bread with it. Show the yeast to your children and let them smell it. By the way, there is nothing better than white mushrooms sautéed in butter made into a sandwich between two slices of freshly made bread.
Make Spore Prints
If you don't want to eat the mushrooms, use a few different kinds of mushrooms from the grocery store to make spore prints. Try to find older mushrooms already producing the brown powdery spores. Young mushrooms with pink gills or button mushrooms aren't ready to make spores yet.
Place the mushroom with the frilly gill side against some white paper and then cover it with a glass or bowl. (You'll have to remove the stem first). Leave for a few hours or overnight. If the mushroom is producing spores, it should leave a print when you gently lift it away.
Scientists who study fungi, called mycologists, use spore prints to help figure out what species they have found.
Older children can visit here to learn more about fungi, starting with the attack of the killer fungus.
Finally, if you have the time, growing mushrooms from a kit can be a great experience for kids. Kits are available with different types of mushrooms, at varying sizes and costs. Check the Internet for sources.
A Few Mushroom and Fungi Books:
Mushroom in the Rain by Mirra Ginsburg. Macmillan Publishing Co, New York. 1974.
A fiction picture book with a cute story.
What Rot! Nature's Mighty Recycler by Elizabeth Ring. Millbrook Press, Brookfield Conn. 1996. (Nonfiction)
Fungi by Mary Kay Larson, Newbridge Educational Publishing, New York. 2003. (Nonfiction)
Plants That Never Bloom by Ruth Heller. (nonfiction). Note: This older book still classifies fungi as plants, but the other information and illustrations are still worthwhile.
What is a Fungus? By D.M. Souza. Franklin Watts, New York. 2002. (Nonfiction)