Tag: earthworm science for children

STEM Friday #Kidlit We Dig Worms!

For STEM Friday we have the combined natural history comic and leveled reader for kids, We Dig Worms by Kevin McCloskey.

Kids of all ages are attracted to cartoons. The art helps tell the story and the humor makes it fun to read.

However, that doesn’t mean cartoon illustrations shouldn’t be taken seriously. This book has an underpinning of solid scientific facts. For example McCloskey shows the anatomy and life cycle of earthworms,

emphasizes the importance of earthworms in their natural habitat — as food for other animals, for their role in the decomposition of plant waste, and as aerators of the soil —

and includes discussions of earthworm behavior.

Earthworms are great!

On repeat readings, you will likely notice other details that make We Dig Worms a special experience. At the beginning of the book (end papers), a worm is coming out of its burrow. At the end, the worm goes back into its burrow. Also, the illustrations are done on paper grocery bags to emphasize the theme of recycling. There is a lot to observe and talk about.

As if that weren’t enough, in the back matter are tips and suggestions for parents and teachers on how to read comics with kids, with emphasis on going “for the shared pleasure.” Wonderful!

We Dig Worms is a resource that young readers will want to return to again and again. Pick up and enjoy a copy today!

Suggested activities to accompany the book

Looking for a project on earthworms? You might want to consider vermiculture (worm composting). Providing a safe habitat for worms, feeding them, and being able to observe them closely can lead to valuable learning. All it requires is a container, bedding (like shredded newspapers and paper bags), vegetable food scraps, and worms (available at bait shops and from worm farms).


Age Range: 4 – 8 years
Publisher: TOON Books (April 14, 2015)
ISBN-10: 1935179802
ISBN-13: 978-1935179801

Disclosure: This book and the copyrighted illustrations were provided by the author. Also, I am an affiliate with Amazon so I can provide you with cover images and links to more information about books and products. As you probably are aware, if you click through the highlighted title link and purchase a product, I will receive a very small commission, at no extra cost to you. Any proceeds help defray the costs of hosting and maintaining this website.

Come visit the STEM Friday blog each week to find more great Science, Technology, Engineering and Math books. Note: this is a new link as of 10/2018.

Weekend Science Fun: Earthworms

One sure sign of spring is when you see earthworms coming up during rains. You can collect a few specimens for children to observe and do some earthworm science activities. If you don’t have abundant naturally-occurring earthworms, they are often available for purchase at bait shops or from worm farms that supply worms for composting.


  • earthworms (enough for each group) – keep them in moist soil in a darkened container for as short a time as possible
  • disposable plates – one for each group
  • moist paper towels – to keep the earthworms moist
  • drawing supplies and paper
  • rulers
  • magnifying lens

If you are working with a number of children, you may want to create small groups to work together. Ask for volunteers to serve as the “worm wrangler” to help keep the worm on the plate for each group. Give each group a plate with a moist paper towel on it, plus paper to record their observations. Gently set an earthworm on the moist toweling and let the children observe them.

Suggestions for Earthworm Observations:

Look at your earthworm closely.

  • What shape is it?
  • Does it have a head?
  • Which end is the front end? How can you tell?
  • Is the top different from the bottom?
  • What color is the earthworm?
  • How does it feel when you touch it? (gently)
  • Does the earthworm ever move backwards?
  • What happens when your worm meets another worm?
  • Is it moving? How fast does it go? How can you measure how fast it is going?
  • Are there any other special features that you notice?
  • How long is your earthworm? Measure it with a ruler. Do you think all earthworms are the same length? Why or why not?
  • Does it look different under a magnifying lens?

Draw your earthworm on a piece of paper.
Have the children think about the earthworms and write down any questions. Some of the answers may be in the earthworm information section below. Research the answers to the rest.

Return the earthworms to the moist soil as soon as possible and release where they were found. If you purchased them, consider preparing a compost bin and use the worms to recycle table scraps. Raising worms can be a great long term science project. (See the instructions for setting up a worm bin at the end of this post.)

Earthworm Information

What do earthworms eat?

Many children will answer that earthworms eat soil. This answer is partially true for the types of earthworms that spend most of their time underground. Although they appear to eat the dirt, the parts that they actually digest are the soil microorganisms, such as bacteria. The rest of the soil simply passes through the digestive tract.

Other kinds of worms, such as the red wigglers used in worm bins, live naturally at the surface in piles of dead leaves. These kinds of worms break off bits of dead plants with their mouth (they don’t have teeth) and eat them. Sometimes they will drag a dead leaf into a burrow in the soil and eat it there.

What are earthworm castings?

Casting are simply the remains that have passed through the earthworms. Some types of worms that live in burrows leave their castings at the soil surface.

The castings are full of nutrients for enriching the soil. Some people keep earthworms in a worm bin so the worms turn kitchen and garden scraps into valuable worm castings (see more about that below).

How do earthworms move?

Earthworms have sets of muscles that alternately squeeze them, pushing them out like a tube of toothpaste. Then another set of muscles pull them together again. Stiff hairs called setae on the outside of their skin stick into the soil to help them move forward.

In the original of the photograph above you could see the setae, but at this size they just look like bumps. Look on a real earthworm and see if you can spot them.

Worm Bins

The type of worms that do well in worm bins are the red wigglers. They are relatively small, as as the name implies, actively wiggle around. In fact, if the red wigglers are disturbed by the conditions of the bin, they may wriggle right out. You can often find someone with a bin who is willing to donate a few. otherwise, you can buy them.

Rather than writing out all the instructions to make a worm bin, here’s a quick video to show you how to set one up.

Worm bins don’t take up much space and should not smell bad — the first question everyone asks. Making a worm bin is an absolutely wonderful project to do with kids. We kept a worm bin one year. I still remember when we found our first cocoon, which is the structure the earthworms form around their eggs. It was so exciting!

I could go on and on about earthworms. Please let me know if you have any comments, questions or suggestions.

Do you have a worm bin?

Additional Resources:

Wiggling Worms at Work (Let’s-Read-and-Find-Out Science 2) by Wendy Pfeffer and illustrated by Steve Jenkins.

See our growing list of compost/decomposition books for children.