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Today's STEM Friday book is not our usual fare. In For the Good of Mankind?: The Shameful History of Human Medical Experimentation, author Vicki Oransky Wittenstein for-the-good-of-mankindhas gathered horrific examples of medical experimentation performed on people without their knowledge or consent. Although you might expect the cases to be largely from previous centuries, the sad truth is that Wittenstein has uncovered examples right up to the present day.

Note: If you are squeamish, you should probably stop reading right here.

Wittenstein starts the book with the outrageous story of Simeon Shaw, a four-year-old Australian boy who developed bone cancer in 1946. With a great deal of fanfare and publicity, the boy and his mother were brought to the University of California Hospital in San Francisco for treatment. Unbeknownst to most people involved, including Simeon's mother, he was injected with radioactive materials instead and his tissues were harvested to study the movement of radioactive materials in the human body. Simeon was sent back home without receiving any actual cancer treatment and died months later.

The author sticks to her thesis about the conflict of medical experimentation and patient's rights for the rest of the book, digging out case after case of painful, often fatal, medical experiments carried out against the patient's best interest and mostly without informed consent. Accounts range from the words of a survivor of Dr. Mengele's concentration camp experiments to the more recent Trovan experiment in Nigeria, where certain participants were given the unproven drug Trovon to cure their meningitis instead of an antibiotic that was known to work.

Some of the case histories felt like they needed a bit more perspective. Why did  the doctors in California want to perform experiments with radiation on a small, sick boy? Why couldn't they have used an animal model? Unless the reader is an ardent student of history who understands the time period, it feels like the historical context, experimenter's motivations and even the outcomes have not been described fully enough.

For example, Edward Jenner tested the idea behind smallpox vaccine by giving his gardener's young son cowpox and then purposely exposing him to smallpox without the boy's knowledge. It seems atrocious to purposely infect a small boy with a potentially fatal disease. What is not mentioned in the book, however, is that others had already conducted successful experiments using cowpox to create immunity against smallpox and Jenner had every reason to believe he would also be successful. It would not be difficult to include numbers as to how many people were dying from smallpox at the time (20% of the population according to one source) and how many lives were saved by the vaccine, but that is not revealed.

Does establishing that there might have been some benefits - or at least compelling reasons for the inhumane experiments - somehow negate or justify the wrongfulness of the procedure? To my mind, it does not. I think, however, that being able to more fully examine the experimenter's actions based on the information available at the time does help add important historical context that might allow researchers and policy makers to avoid similar patterns of thinking in the future, such as what boundaries regarding personal freedoms and human decency should be safeguarded when a country is at war.

Regarding safeguards, the author shows that we have made significant advancements in the area of medical ethics over time. As modern techniques take our abilities into the realm of science fiction, we need to make sure policies remain in place to protect individuals, and particularly the most vulnerable ones, from the types of cruel treatments in the name of medical advancements the author has uncovered.

Obviously, this is a thought-provoking book. For the Good of Mankind?: The Shameful History of Human Medical Experimentation is likely to leave the reader with many tough questions to ponder. It is probably best for mature young adult readers interested in medical history and ethics.

Discussion guide available at Vicki Oransky Wittenstein's website

Publisher: Lerner Publishing Group (August 1, 2013)
ISBN-10: 1467706590
ISBN-13: 978-1467706599

To find out more about the book and Vicki Oransky Wittenstein, check the blog tour stops:

Mon, Nov 4
proseandkahn

Tues, Nov 5
The Prosen People

Thurs, Nov 7
The Nonfiction Detectives

Fri, Nov 8
Growing with Science

Mon, Nov 11
Ms. Yingling Reads

Tues, Nov 12
Through the Wardrobe

Wed, Nov 13
Kid Lit Frenzy

Thurs, Nov 14
GreenBeanTeenQueen

Fri, Nov 15
The Fourth Musketeer

Disclosures: This book was provided by the publisher for review purposes. Also, I am an affiliate for Amazon, and if you click through the linked titles or ads and make a purchase, I will receive a small commission at no extra charge to you. Proceeds will be used to maintain this self-hosted blog.

 

Come visit the STEM Friday blog each week to find more great Science, Technology, Engineering and Math books.

Today for STEM Friday we are featuring Desert Food Webs in Action (Searchlight Books) by Paul Fleisher. desert-food-webs

We often think of the big, flashy animals like the mountain lions and the coyotes when we think of the desert. All the living things in the desert matter though, even the tiny ones. The bigger animals depend on many plants and smaller animals to provide them with food. Decomposers like ants, fungi and bacteria are also important because they help recycle nutrients. This book describes the various desert creatures and how their lives are interrelated via food chains and food webs.

desert-food-web

The producers are plants that gather and store energy from sunlight, like cacti, succulents, wildflowers, shrubs, trees and grasses. They produce food for the other stages.

Primary consumers are animals who depend on plants for food. Examples are insects, birds like hummingbirds, and desert tortoises.

Secondary consumers rely mostly on other animals for food. Spiders and birds that eat a lot of insects are secondary consumers.

Tertiary consumers are carnivores that eat both secondary and primary consumers. Examples are hawks and kingsnakes, a type of snake that eats other snakes.

Not shown in the illustration are scavengers and decomposers. Scavengers feed on dead animals. They are part of nature's clean up crew. Decomposers break down both animal and plant materials so that plants can use the nutrients again.

javelina

Food webs aren't always neat and tidy. For example, javelinas are mostly thought of as primary consumers because they eat plant materials like prickly pear fruit and mesquite beans. They are also known to eat lizards, mice and dead birds, which would make them scavengers and secondary consumers, too.

Want to learn more about desert creatures? Desert Food Webs in Action by Paul Fleisher is a good place to start.

When you are ready, why not construct a desert food web of your own?

Where to find out more:

Ages: 8-11
Series: Searchlight Books
Paperback: 40 pages
Publisher: Lerner Publishing Group (August 1, 2013)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 1467715522
ISBN-13: 978-1467715522

Disclosures: I am an affiliate for Amazon, and if you click through the linked titles or ads and make a purchase, I will receive a small commission at no extra charge to you. Proceeds will be used to maintain this self-hosted blog.

 

Come visit the STEM Friday blog each week to find more great Science, Technology, Engineering and Math books.

Today we are taking a short break from our Mystery Seed/Seed of the Week features to take a look at a new children's fiction picture book, Miss Maple's Seeds by Eliza Wheeler. I found this book and thought it would be a great tie-in for children interested in seeds.

miss-maples-seeds-2

Story:  Miss Maple gathers up seeds that haven't found a place a grow and keeps them safe over the winter. In the spring she sends the seeds out to meet their destinies.

Miss Maple's Seeds has all the ingredients to become a classic children's book. It has a message about growing up that will resonate both with children and the adults who read to them, saying the biggest of trees come from small seeds. It also subtly incorporates the changes of the seasons to reinforce the theme.

The illustrations have a soft, yellowed, old-timey feel. Although this is a fictional tale, one of the illustrations is a page with drawings of 20 different types of seeds (I should point out that the "seeds" from the fern as shown in the book are actually technically spores). See how many you have investigated and can recognize.

Miss Maple's Seeds is likely to appeal to children who love nature and enjoy fairy tales. See what ideas it plants in you!

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Finding this book inspired me to create a list of children's books about seeds at Science Books for Kids. It is a work in progress and I would welcome any suggestions, particularly books about seeds for older children.

Some other ideas for seed activities with children:

  • Go outside and have a seed search (like the caterpillar hunt last week), and then identify the seeds and plants you find
  • Plant seeds and watch them grow (such as growing apricot pits)
  • Investigate how seeds get around (disperse)

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Miss Maple's Seeds by Eliza Wheeler

Age Range: 3 - 5 years
Grade Level: Preschool - Kindergarten
Hardcover: 32 pages
Publisher: Nancy Paulsen Books (April 4, 2013)
ISBN-10: 0399257926
ISBN-13: 978-0399257926

Book was provided by my local library.

 

Disclaimer:  Linked titles go to Amazon for further information and reviews. Just so you know, I am an affiliate with Amazon. If you make a purchase after clicking on one of the links, I will receive a small commission at no extra charge to you, the proceeds of which will help pay for maintaining this website.